Bone Cancer is a painful and deadly disease. But this can be cured in early stages easily. So this article provides you information related to bone cancer, Sigs or symptoms of bone cancer, what may be the causes of bone cancer, How often does it occur, what treatment option do patients have, what are the best hospitals for the bone cancer treatment.

What is bone cancer?

Bone cancer is a malignant (cancerous) tumor of the bone that destroys normal bone tissue. All bone tumors are not malignant. Benign (non-cancerous) bone tumors are more common than malignant tumors. Malignant and benign bone tumors can develop and compress surrounding bone tissues, but when compared to maligant tumors benign tumors do not spread, do not destroy bone tissue, and rarely pose a threat to life.

Malignant tumors that start in the bone tissue are called primary cancer of the bones. Cancer that spreads to the bones of other parts of the body, such as the prostate, breast or lung, is called metastatic cancer and is named after the organ or tissue in which it began. Primary bone cancer is much less common than cancer that spreads to the bones.

How many types of bone cancer exist?

The bone cancer has different types, In this article we have covered most common ones and listed below.

Osteosarcoma

Osteosarcoma is the most common type of bone cancer. Osteosarcoma most commonly occurs in ages from 10 to 19, and is more common in men. In young people, osteosarcoma tends to develop at the ends of long bones in areas where bone grows actively, often around the knee, either at the end of the femur (femur) or at the level of the tibia (tibia) near knee. The next most common location for bone cancer is in the arm bone. Even though, it is possible that osteosarcoma develops in any bone. Depending on the appearance of the tumor cells under the microscope, there are also many other subtypes of osteosarcoma.

Chondrosarcoma

Chondrosarcoma is the second most common bone cancer. It comes from cartilage cells attached to or covering the bone. It is more common in people over 40, and less than 5% of these cancers occur in people under 20 years of age. It can grow quickly and aggressively or develop slowly. Chondrosarcoma is most commonly found in the bones of the hips and pelvis.

Ewing sarcoma

Ewing’s sarcoma, sometimes called the ESFT, is an aggressive form of bone cancer that is most common in children aged 4 to 15 years. It can occur in bones or soft tissues and is thought to originate in primary nervous tissue. These are more common among men than women. The most common place for Ewing’s sarcoma is the middle part of the long bones of the arms and legs.

Pleomorphous Sarcoma (Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma) Of Bone

Pleomorphic sarcoma is a cancer formerly called malignant fibrous histiocytoma or MFH. Pleomorphic sarcomas are usually not bone cancers but soft tissues. However, they can occur in the bone up to 5% of cases. Pleomorphic sarcomas usually occur in adults and can be found anywhere in the body.

Fibrosarcoma

Fibrosarcoma is a rare type of bone cancer. It is most often found behind the knee in adults.

Chordoma

Chordoma is a very rare cancer usually seen in people over 30 years old. It is most often located in the lower or upper ends of the spine.

Signs Of Bone Cancer

We have listed common symptoms or signs of bone cancer. Sometimes people with bone cancer do not have any of these changes Or In some cases the cause of a symptom may be a different medical condition that is not cancer.

When a bone tumor develops, it presses on healthy bone tissue and can destroy it, causing the following symptoms:

Bone Pain.: The first symptoms of bone cancer are pain and swelling where the tumor is located. The pain can come and go at the beginning. Then it can become more severe and more stable later. The pain may worsen with movement, and there may be swelling in the surrounding soft tissues.

Swelling And Stiffness Of The Joints: A tumor that occurs near or in a joint can cause swelling of the joint and become tender or rigid. This means that a person can have limited and painful range of motion.

Claudication: If a bone with a tumor breaks in one leg, it can lead to pronounced lameness. Goiter is usually a symptom of advanced bone cancer.

Some other symptoms can be seen rarely like weight loss, fever, general malaise, and anemia, which is a low red blood cell count.

If you are concerned about the changes it is advised to talk with your doctor. Your doctor will ask you how long and how often you have experienced the symptom, in addition to other questions. This is to help them in diagnosis.

If cancer is diagnosed, symptom relief remains an important part of cancer care and treatment. It can also be called supportive care, symptom management or palliative care. Be sure to talk to your health care team about any symptoms you may have, including any new symptoms or changes in symptoms

What Causes Bone Cancer:

There are many factors can often influence cancer development, but most of them do not directly cause cancer. Some people with multiple risk factors never develop cancer, while others have no known risk factors for developing cancer.

We have listed below some of the factors that may increase the chance of developing bone cancer:

Genetic: Osteosarcoma may develop in Children with familial retinoblastoma (type of eye cancer). People from families with a history of sarcomas are observed with Li-Fraumeni syndrome, which can lead them to osteosarcomas. Researchers are discovering genes passed down from generation to generation that increase the risk of developing osteosarcoma compared to the general population. All these conditions are rare.

Previous Radiotherapy Therapy: People who have had radiation treatment for other conditions have a higher risk of developing bone cancer at the site of radiation therapy. The majority of sarcomas caused by radiotherapy include angiosarcoma and soft tissue of the ASI or osteosarcoma.

Chemotherapy: Certain drugs, including anthracyclines and alkylating agents, which are used in cancer treatment may lead to developing a secondary cancer like osteosarcoma.

Benign Tumors Or Other Bone Conditions:  Paget’s disease of bone can lead to osteosarcoma. Other non-cancerous bone diseases may also increase the risk of osteosarcoma.

How often does bone cancer occur?

Primary bone cancer is rare. It accounts for much less than 1 percent of all cancers. Different types of bone cancer are more likely to occur in certain populations:

Osteosarcoma most often occurs between 10 and 19 years of age. However, people over 40 who have other conditions, such as Paget’s disease (a benign disease characterized by abnormal development of new bone cells), have an increased risk of developing this cancer.

Chondrosarcoma occurs mainly in the elderly (over 40 years). The risk increases with age. This disease rarely occurs in children and adolescents.

FHTs occur most often in children and adolescents under 19 years of age. Boys are more often affected than girls. These tumors are extremely rare among African-American children.

Can Bone Cancer Be Cured?

Yes. Bone cancer is a curable disease in its early stages. Just like other types of cancer this can be cured in early stages easily. So please be aware of symptoms of bone cancer and consult your doctor.

Bone Cancer Diagnosis

In the process of diagnosis the doctor may enquire about medical history of patient and also family members. The doctor conducts physical examination and can order laboratory tests and other diagnostic tests. Some of the tests are listed below:

X-rays, which can show the shape, location and size of a bone tumor. If X-rays suggest that an abnormal area may be cancerous, the doctor will probably ask for some other imaging tests. The X-rays suggest that an abnormal area is benign, but the doctor may want to do other tests, especially if the patient experiences unusual or persistent pain.

Bone scintigraphy, a test in which a small amount of radioactive material is injected into a blood vessel and passes through the bloodstream; it then collects in the bones and is detected by a scanner.

A scanner (CT or CAT), which is a series of detailed images of areas inside the body, taken from different angles, that are created by a computer connected to an X-ray machine.

A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedure, which useful in creating images of a particular area inside the body without using X-rays. This test gives detailed information that particular area. This test uses a powerful magnet connected to a computer to create detailed images.

A positron emission tomography (PET), In this test a little amount of radioactive glucose is injected into vein. Then computerized images were collected by scanner which shows the usage of glucose by cells in the tissue. If there is any abnormal usage in the glucose indicates the tumour.

An angiogram (X-ray of the blood vessels)

Biopsy (taking a sample of tissue from the bone tumor) to determine if the cancer is present. The surgeon can perform an incisional biopsy or a needle biopsy. During a needle biopsy, the surgeon makes a small hole in the bone and removes a tissue sample from the tumor with a needle-shaped instrument. In an incisional biopsy, the surgeon cuts into the tumor and removes a part of tissue. Biopsies should be performed by an orthopedic oncologist (a doctor experienced in the treatment of bone cancer). A pathologist (a doctor who identifies a disease by studying cells and tissues under a microscope) examines the tissue to determine if it is cancerous.

Blood tests to determine the level of an enzyme called alkaline phosphatase. A huge amount of this enzyme is present in the blood when the cells that form the bone tissue are very active – when the children grow up, when a broken bone corrects itself or when a disease or a tumor causes the production of abnormal bone tissue . Since elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase are normal in growing children and adolescents, we cannot confirm bone cancer only by thid test.

 Bone Cancer Treatment

Treatment options depend on the stage, location, size and type of the cancer, along with them age, general health of the person is also considered. There are four major options available for treatment like cryosurgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery.

Surgery is most common option available for treatment. The surgeon removes the entire tumor with negative margins (no cancer cells are on the edge or edge of tissue removed during surgery). The surgeon can also use special surgical techniques to minimize the amount of healthy tissue removed with the tumor.

Dramatic improvements in surgical techniques and treatment of preoperative tumors have allowed most bone cancer patients in an arm or leg to avoid radical surgical procedures (removal of the entire limb). However, most patients who undergo limb-saving surgery require reconstructive surgery to maximize limb function.

Chemotherapy is the use of anticancer drugs to kill cancer cells. A combination of anti-cancer drugs are usually given to bone cancer patients. However, chemotherapy is not currently used to treat chondrosarcoma.

Radiation therapy, involves the use of high-energy X-rays to kill cancer cells. Surgical procedure and radiation therapy are used combined in this treatment. It is often used to treat chondrosarcoma. It can also be used for patients who refuse surgery.

Cryosurgery is the use of liquid nitrogen to freeze and kill cancer cells. This type of treatment may be used instead of conventional surgery to destroy the tumor.

 Which specialists treat bone cancer?

Bone cancer patients are advised to visit medical oncologists (for administration or chemotherapy) and surgical oncologists or orthopedic oncologists (for surgical removal of the tumor). Radiation oncologists are involved in the treatment team if radiotherapy is needed. Palliative care physicians may be involved to manage pain and symptoms.

Is Bone Cancer Painful?

Yes. Bone Cancer is  a painful disease. Analgesics (analgesics) treat pain caused by bone cancer. These may be over-the-counter or prescription medications. Mild to moderate pain is treated with drugs such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, including naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, Aleve, Naprelan) and ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil). However, people taking cancer chemotherapeutic drugs may need to avoid nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs because of an increased risk of bleeding.

Prescription drugs are used for moderate to severe cancer pain. Opioids – more powerful narcotic analgesics – such as fentanyl, hydromorphone, morphine, oxycodone and codeine may be needed to control severe pain. Sometimes a combination of drugs is used to treat cancer pain. Opioid medications may be associated with side effects like constipation, nausea, and drowsiness.

Is follow-up treatment necessary? What does this imply?

Yes. Bone cancer sometimes metastasises, especially in the lungs, or can reappear (come back), either in the same place or in other bones of the body. People who have had bone cancer should consult their doctor regularly and report any unusual symptoms immediately. Monitoring varies for different types and stages of bone cancer. Generally, patients are frequently checked by their doctor and routinely undergo X-rays and blood tests. People who have had bone cancer, especially adolescents and children, have an increased chance of developing another type of cancer, like leukemia, later in life. Regular follow-up care allows you to discuss health changes and deal with problems as quickly as possible

Best Bone Cancer Hospitals In India

Best Bone Cancer Hospitals In Hyderabad

American Oncology Institute

The American Oncology Institute, the flagship international center of CTSI (Cancer Treatment Services International) based in the United States, aims to bridge the gap between standards of care in India and the United States. To do this, they have transferred all the benefits of the latest cancer treatments from the world’s most advanced countries to the people of India. This ensures that all patients will receive care at the level of what is available in the Western world.

Address: 1-100/1/CCH, Near aparna Sarovar, Nallagandla, Serilingampally, Hyderabad, Telangana 530019

Phone: 040 6719 9999

Yashoda Cancer Institute

For two decades, the Yashoda Hospital Group has been providing quality health care to people with diverse medical needs. People trust this hospital because of the strong relationships they have built with their patients over the years.

Address: Old Malakpet, Nalgonda cross road, Hyderabad, Telangana 500036

Hours: Open 24 hours

Phone: 040 4567 4567

Best Bone Cancer Hospitals In New Delhi

Dharamshila Narayana Superspeciality Hospital

The Dharamshila Hospital and Research Center is the first and only cancer hospital in India that has been accredited by NABH. They also have NABH accredation for all its allied specialties and its laboratories. Dr. S. Khanna is the founder of this hospital.

 Address: Vasundhara Enclave, Near New Ashok Nagar Metro Station, Dallupura, New Delhi, Delhi 110096

Hours: Open 24 hours

Phone: 1860 208 0208

Founded: 1990

Motto: Cancer is Curable

Dr Dinesh Bhurani, Hematologist In India, Bone Marrow Transplant Specialist, Hematology Centre

The idea of Bone Marrow India was conceptualized by Dr. Dinesh Bhurani, a prominent bone marrow transplant specialist who has successfully conducted approximately 400 bone marrow transplants at the Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute & Research Center, New Delhi. There is a team of five transplant specialists who provide transplant care on your doorstep.

Address: Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute & Research Centre,, Sector 5, Rohini, Near Rohini West Metro Station, West Delhi, New Delhi, Delhi 110085

Phone: 099715 00861.

Best Bone Cancer Hospitals In Mumbai

Tata Memorial Hospital

Tata Memorial Hospital is located in Mumbai, India. It is a specialized center for cancer treatment and research, closely associated with the Advanced Center for Cancer Education, Treatment and Research.

Address: Dr. E Borges Road, Parel, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400012

Hours: Open 24 hours

Phone: 022 2417 7000

Established: February 28, 1941

P.D. Hinduja Hospital & Medical Research Centre

The P.D. Hinduja National Hospital and Medical Research Center is a multi-sectoral tertiary care hospital. The Hinduja National Hospital and the Medical Research Center were founded by Parmanand Deepchand Hinduja.

Address: Veer Sawarkar Marg, Mahim West, Mahim, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400016

Opening Hours: 8 AM

Phone: 022 6766 8181

Number of beds: 402

Founded: 1951

Best Bone Cancer Hospitals In Bengaluru

Sri Shankara Cancer Hospital and Research Center

 The hospital provides expertise in all super-specialties of cancer, has 42 highly qualified and dedicated medical consultants. To date, SSHRC has treated 21,000 new cancer patients and has consistently sought to achieve its primary goals of providing affordable treatment, including free cancer treatment.

Address: 1st Cross, Shankara Matt Premises, Shankarapuram, Basavanagudi, Bengaluru, Karnataka 560004

Hours: Open 24 hours

Phone: 080 2698 1100

Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology

Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology is a cancer care hospital located in Bangalore, India. It is an autonomous institution of the Karnataka government and a regional cancer center funded by the Government of India.

Address: KMIO Campus, Dr M H Mariagowda Road, Near Bangalore Dairy, Bengaluru, Karnataka 560029

Phone: 080 2609 4000

Established: June 26, 1973