Human Kidney is a vital organ in purifying blood. What happens when your kidney fails or stop functioning? This could lead to a serious damage and eventually to death. So when kidney fails you will have only two options one is Kidney Transplant and other is Kidney Dialysis. The article on Kidney Transplant In India has intended to provide information about Kidney transplant Process, Donation, Operation or surgery, cost, Hospitals, Life expectancy.
What Is A Kidney Transplant?
When you receive a kidney transplant, a healthy kidney is placed in your body to do the work that your own kidneys cannot do anymore.
On the positive side, there are fewer limits on what you can drink and eat, but you should follow a healthy diet. Your health should improve. In fact, a successful kidney transplant can allow you to live the kind of life you lived before having kidney disease. Studies show that people who have had a kidney transplant live longer than those who remain on dialysis.
On the negative side, there is the risk of surgery. You will also need to take anti-rejection medications as long as your new kidney works, which can have side effects. You will have a higher risk of infections and certain types of cancer.
Although most transplants are successful and last for many years, their duration may vary from person to person. Many people will need more than one kidney transplant in their lifetime.
When the kidneys stop functioning, kidney failure occurs. If this renal failure persists (chronically), this results in end-stage renal failure, accompanied by an accumulation of toxic waste in the body. In this case, transplantation or dialysis is necessary.
Reason For End-Stage Renal Disease
• Serious anatomic problems of the urinary system
• Polycystic kidney disease
Treatments For End-Stage Renal Disease
The treatments for end-stage renal failure are hemodialysis, a mechanical method of cleaning blood from waste; peritoneal dialysis, in which waste is removed by passing chemical solutions through the abdominal cavity; and kidney transplantation.
However, while none of these treatments cure end-stage kidney disease, a transplant offers the closest thing to a normal life because the transplanted kidney can replace the failing kidneys. However, it also involves a lifetime addiction to drugs to keep the new kidney healthy. Some of these medications can have serious side effects.
Some kidney patients are considering a transplant after dialysis begins; others consider it before starting dialysis. In certain circumstances, dialysis patients who also have serious medical problems such as cancer or active infections may not be suitable candidates for a kidney transplant.
Kidneys for transplant come from two different sources: a living donor or a deceased donor.
The Living Donor
Sometimes family members, including parents, a spouse, close friend, aunts, uncles, children (18 years and older), cousins, sisters, brothers may wish to donate a kidney. This person is called a “living donor”. The donor must be in excellent health, knowledgeable about the transplant and be able to give informed consent. Anyone in good health can give a kidney safely.
A deceased donor kidney comes from someone who has suffered brain death. The law allows everyone to consent to organ donation for transplantation at the time of death and allows families to also provide such permission. After donation authorization is granted, the kidneys are removed and stored until a recipient has been selected.
A more detailed version will be explained in Section 10.
Assessment Process Of Transplantation
Regardless of the type of kidney transplant – deceased donor or living donor – special blood tests are needed to determine what type of blood and tissue is present. These test results help match a donor kidney to the recipient.
Blood Type Test
The first test establishes the type of blood. There are four types of blood: O, AB, B, and A. Everyone fits into one of these inherited groups. The recipient and the donor must have either the compatible group or same blood groups unless they are participating in a special program to donate one blood group to another. The list below shows the compatible types:
• If the blood group of the recipient is type A, the blood type must be A or O
• If the blood group of the recipient is B, the blood type of the donor must be B or O
• If the blood group of the recipient is O, the blood group should be O
• If the blood group of the recipient is AB, the blood group can be A, B, AB or O
• The blood type AB is the easiest to match because this individual accepts all other types of blood.
Blood type O is the hardest to match. Although O blood group persons can give to all types, they can only receive kidneys from type O blood donors. For example, if a patient with blood group O receives a kidney from a donor blood group. type A, the body will recognize the donor’s kidney as foreign and destroy it.
The second test, which is a blood test for human leukocyte antigens (HLA), which is also called as tissue typing. Antigens are markers found on many cells of the body that distinguish each individual as unique. These markers are inherited from parents. Both potential donors and recipients have tissue typing performed during the assessment process.
Receiving a kidney where the donor markers and the recipient markers are all the same is a “perfect” kidney. Perfect transplants have the best chance of working for many years. The most perfect kidney transplants come from brothers and sisters.
Although tissue typing is performed despite a partial or absent HLA match with some degree of “discordance” between the recipient and the donor.
Throughout life, the body makes substances called antibodies that act to destroy foreign matter. Individuals can make antibodies whenever there is an infection, a kidney transplant, a pregnancy, or a blood transfusion. If there are antibodies against the donor kidney, the body can destroy the kidney. So, when a donor kidney is available, a test called “crossmatch” is performed to ensure that the recipient does not have preformed antibodies to the donor.
The cross-match test is performed by mixing the recipient’s blood with the donor’s cells. If the result of the crossmatch is shown as positive, it indicates that there are antibodies against the donor kidney. The recipient should not transplanted this particular kidney unless special treatment is done before transplantation to make antibody levels as low as possible. If the result of the crossmatch is shown as negative, it means that the recipient has no antibodies against the donor and is eligible to receive this kidney.
Cross-checks are performed several times during preparation for a live donor transplant, and a final cross-match test is performed within 48 hours of this type of transplant.
Tests are also performed on viruses such as CMV (cytomegalovirus), HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) and hepatitis to select the appropriate preventive drugs after the transplant. These viruses are checked by any potential donor to help prevent the spread of the disease to the recipient.
What Is A “Preventive” Or “Early” Transplant?
Getting a transplant before starting dialysis is called a preventative transplant. This allows you to completely avoid dialysis. Getting a transplant shortly after kidney failure (but with some dialysis time) is considered an early transplant. Both have advantages. Some research shows that a early or preventive transplant, with some or no time spent on dialysis, can improve long-term health. It can also allow you to continue working, save money and time and have a better quality of life.
Who Can Receive A Kidney Transplant?
All age group of people from children to the elderly can receive a transplant.
You must be healthy enough to have the operation. You must also be free of infection and cancer. Each person considered for a transplant will receive a full psychosocial and medical assessment to ensure they are a good candidate for the transplant. The assessment helps to find problems so that they can be corrected before the transplant. For most people, getting a transplant can be a good treatment choice.
What if I am older or have other health problems?
In many cases, older people or those with other health problems such as diabetes may still have a successful kidney transplant. Careful evaluation is necessary to understand and manage specific risks. You may be asked to do certain things that can reduce some risks and improve the chances of a successful transplant. For example, you may be asked to stop smoking or lose weight.
If you have diabetes, you may also be able to undergo a pancreas transplant. Ask your health care provider to do a pancreas transplant with a kidney transplant.
Kidney Transplant Process
How can I start the process of getting a kidney transplant?
Ask your health care provider to refer you to a transplant center for an assessment, or contact a transplant center in your area. Any kidney patient can request an assessment.
How does the evaluation process work?
Health professionals will give you a complete physical exam, examine your health records and order a series of tests and x-rays to find out about your overall health. Anything that can affect your health and how you can handle the treatment will be checked. The assessment process for a transplant is not easy. Your doctor will need to know a lot about you to help them – and you – decide if a transplant is right for you. One thing you can do to speed up the process is to do all the tests as quickly as possible and stay in close contact with the transplant team. If you are told that you may not be right for a transplant, do not be afraid to ask why, or if you may qualify at another center or later. Remember, being active in your own care is one of the best ways to stay healthy.
If someone you know wants to give you a kidney, they will also need to be screened to see if they match a partner and if they are healthy enough to donate.
If it’s your child with kidney disease, you’ll want to seriously think about a graft assessment for him. Because transplantation allows children and young adults to develop as normally as possible in their formative years, this may be the best treatment for them.
If the assessment process shows that a transplant is the right one for you or your child, the next step is to get an appropriate kidney.
What is a Kidney operation?
You may be surprised to learn that your own kidneys are not usually removed when you receive a transplant. The surgeon removes them only if it has the proper medical reason. The donated kidney is placed in your lower abdomen (belly), where it is easier to connect it to your bladder and important blood vessels. Putting the new kidney in your abdomen also makes it easier to take care of any problems that may arise.
The operation takes about four hours. At first you will be sore, but you should be out of bed in a day or two and be home within a week. If the kidney comes from a living donor, it should start working very quickly. A kidney from a deceased donor may take longer to start working – two to four weeks or more. If this happens, you may need dialysis until the kidney starts working.
After the surgery, you will be taught the medications you will need to take and their side effects. You will also learn about diet. If you have been on dialysis, you will find that there are fewer restrictions on what you can drink and eat, which is one of the benefits of a transplant.
What are the anti-rejection drugs?
Normally, your body fights everything that is not part of itself, like germs and viruses. This protection system is called your immune system. To prevent your body from attacking or rejecting the donated kidney, you will need to take medication to keep your immune system less active (called anti-rejection drugs or immunosuppressive drugs). You will need to take them as long as your new kidney works. Without them, your immune system would see the kidney given as “alien” and attack and destroy it.
Anti-rejection drugs can have side effects. It is important to talk to your doctor so you know what to expect. Fortunately, for most people, the side effects are usually manageable. Changing the type of medication or dose can often reduce some of the side effects.
In addition to immunosuppressive medications, you also take other medications. You will also take medicine to protect yourself from infection. Most people find that taking medication is a small business for the freedom and quality of life that a successful transplant can provide.
After Your Transplant
What happens after my return home?
Once you are home from the hospital, the most important work begins. For your transplant to succeed, you will have attend regular checkups, first year will be crucial. Firstly, blood tests will be conducted several times in a week. Then you will need less balance sheets, but enough to make sure your kidney is working well and you have the right amount of anti-rejection drugs in your body.
What are the chances of rejection?
One thing that you and your health care team will observe is acute rejection, In this case your body is suddenly trying to reject the transplanted kidney. An episode of rejection may not have symptoms or obvious signs. That’s why it’s so important to have regular blood tests to check the functioning of your kidney. The things you may notice may let you know that you have a rejection are pain on your kidney, weight gain, swelling, a decrease in urine production and fevers.
The chances of having a rejection episode are the highest just after your surgery. If you have the kidney for longtime it reduces chances. Unfortunately, sometimes an episode of rejection occurs even if you do everything you are supposed to do. Sometimes the body simply does not accept the transplanted kidney. But even if an episode of rejection occurs, there are many ways to treat it so you do not lose your transplant. Let your transplant team know right away that you think you have rejection symptoms is very important.
How often do episodes of rejection occur?
This happen only few times these days. This is because there have been many improvements in immunosuppressive drugs. However, the risk of rejection is different for each person. For most people, rejection can be stopped with specific anti-rejection drugs. It is very important to have regular checkups to see if your kidney is working well and make sure you do not have a rejection.
When can I return to work?
The time to return to work depends on your recovery, the type of work you do, and other health issues. Many people can return to work eight weeks or more after their Kidney transplant surgery. Your doctor will help you decide when to return to work.
Will my sex life be affected?
People who have not had satisfactory sex due to kidney disease may notice an improvement. In addition, fertility tends to increase. Men who had a kidney transplant produced healthy children, and women who had a kidney transplant had successful pregnancies. It is best to talk to your healthcare professional when you plan to have a child.
Women should avoid getting pregnant early after a transplant surgery. Most of the doctors want women to wait a year or more. All pregnancies must be planned. Some drugs that can harm a developing baby should be stopped six weeks before trying to get pregnant. Birth control counseling can be helpful. It is important to protect yourself against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Protection is must during intercourse.
Will I need to follow a special diet?
In general, transplant recipients need to eat a healthy diet for the heart (low fat and low salt) and drink plenty of liquidss. If you are a diabetes patient or any other health problems, you may still have dietary restrictions. It is better to consult a dietitian to help you what to eat.
Find a kidney
Where do the donated kidneys come from?
A healthy kidney must have come from a donor or died person. A person who has donated a kidney and died is called a deceased donor.
The donated kidneys may also come from a living donor. This person may be a non-blood relative (such as a husband or wife)blood relative (such as a brother or sister) or a blood relative (such as a brother or sister). They can also come from a stranger or a friend.
When a kidney is donated by a living person, the operations are performed on the same day and can be scheduled at a convenient time for the donor and the patient. A healthy person who gives a kidney can lead a normal life with the only remaining kidney. But the operation is a major surgery for the donor, as well as the recipient. As with any operation, there are certain risks that you will need to consider.
Does kidney from a living donor perform better?
The kidneys of living or deceased donors work well, but getting a kidney from a living donor can work faster and be better. A living donor kidney may last longer for period of time than that of a deceased donor.
To obtain a deceased donor kidney, you must be authorised for a transplant and then you will be placed on a waiting list. It may take several years before a good donor kidney is offered. From the moment you go on the list until a kidney is found, you may need to be in a form of dialysis. While you wait, you will need regular blood tests to make sure you are ready when a kidney is found. If you are on dialysis, your center will arrange for these tests. You must be in touch with your transplant center always. Once a kidney becomes available, the surgery should be done as soon as possible.
Are there any disadvantages to living donation?
A disadvantage of living donation is that a healthy person must undergo surgery to remove a healthy kidney. The donor will need recovery time before returning to work and other daily activities. In recent advances in surgery (often called minimally invasive or laparoscopic surgery) allow very small incisions. This means less pain, shorter stays in the hospital and recovery time faster return to normal activities. Living donors often have positive feelings about their courageous gift.
Best Kidney Hospital In India
Fortis Healthcare Limited is a leading provider of integrated health care services in India. The vertical health sectors of the business primarily include specialized day care facilities, hospitals and diagnostic facilities.
Fortis Hospital (Regional Office)
Mulund Goregaon Link Road,
Gastro And Kidney Care Hospital
IGKC is a super specialty hospital which commenced operations in the year 2014 and is located in the heart of Bhubaneswar, the temple town and capital of Odisha. The hospital’s clinical staffs include strong team of highly qualified well established locally and in zone and extremely well experienced Consultants.
N-1, plot no 1460/61
Asian Institute Of Nephrology And Urology
Asian Institute of Nephrology and Urology (AINU) is a world – class, single-specialty, renal sciences hospital in Hyderabad. It was established in the year 2013. AINU is among the few urology and nephrology-focused tertiary care hospitals in South India, offering a full suite of medical and surgical services, day care services and supporting services. It is one of the youngest hospitals in the country to achieve NABH accreditation, within two years from its inception.
Asian Institute of Nephrology and Urology
Shop No. 6-3-562/A,
Behind MORE Megastore,
Erram Manzil Colony, Somajiguda,
Hyderabad, India- 500082.
PACE Hospitals is a super specialty hospital focused on tertiary care services in the field of Medical and Surgical Gastroenterology, Hepatology, Nephrology, Urology, GI Oncology and Andrology in Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
Hitech City : Beside Avasa Hotel,
Pillar No. 18,
Hyderabad – 500081
Preeti Urology And Kidney Hospital
Preeti Hospital is one of Hyderabad’s best kidney hospitals, located at KPHB Kukatpally, which has advanced technologies to treat patients. The pre-urology and kidney hospital always provide the right balance between staff training, patient care and research to meet the needs of its patients. The Pre-Emergency and Kidney Hospital in Hyderabad also has equipment and permission needed for kidney transplantation.
MIG 1, 307, Road No.4, KPHB, Hyderabad-72.
Kidney Transplant Cost In India
Kidney transplant cost in New-Delhi : Minimum =3,50,000 INR to Maximum=9,00,000 INR
Kidney transplant cost in Mumbai : Minimum =4,00,000 INR to Maximum=10,00,000 INR
Kidney transplant cost in Bangalore : Minimum =4,30,000 INR to Maximum=9,00,000 INR
Kidney transplant cost in Hyderabad : Minimum =3,50,000 INR to Maximum=8,90,000 INR
Kidney transplant cost in Chennai – Minimum =3,50,000 INR to Maximum=8,50,000 INR